Authors: Frederick Ayensu1 | Maame Ama Wiredu2
Golden Sunbeam University College of Science & Technology1
Ministry of Local Government2
The ABO/Rhesus blood and Sickle cell trait are genetically determined and not acquired. Knowledge of the ABO/Rhesus blood groups is important in blood transfusion, organ transplantation, etc. while that of sickle cell trait is helpful in combating the sickle cell disease. The study was conducted at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) hospital to determine (primary data) and therefore update (secondary data) the prevalence of the ABO/Rhesus blood groups and the sickle cell trait among the students and staff of KNUST and the surrounding towns. This study also provided a possible projection of the ABO/Rhesus blood groups and the Sickle cell trait among the Ethnic groups. In all 700 samples (primary data) were collected from patients visiting the laboratory for routine hematological examination over a period of 5 months from October, 2009 to February, 2010. These data compared with and updated the secondary data which consisted of 2637 sample examined for the blood grouping and 3053 samples examined for the sickle cell trait previously. The subjects comprised of both males and females including infants with exception of the secondary data which comprised of only females. The blood groups were determined by agglutination method while the sickle cell trait was determined by Sodium metabisulphite method. Blood group O had the highest frequency in both the primary and secondary data recording 52.8% and 51.3% respectively while blood group AB was the least occurring in both data with 5.3% and 3.7% respectively. Blood groups A and B were comparable in both data sets with A constituting 21% and 22.7% respectively and B recording 20.9% in primary data and 22.3% in secondary data in the secondary data. The frequency for the sickle cell trait was 18.4% positive and 81.6% negative in the primary data and 11.3% positive and 88.7% negative in the secondary data. Among the ethnic groups, 482 Akans, 108 Mole-Dagbanes and less than 100 of the others were sampled (primary data). Blood group O was the most abundant in all the ethnic groups ranging from 56% – 35.7% with the exception of the Guan which had blood group B to be most common with 42.9%. Again, blood groups A and B occurred in approximately equal proportions while blood group AB was the least common. The Rhesus and Sickle cell trait also followed a similar pattern as in both the primary and secondary data. The distribution of the ABO blood group system followed a well-defined, predictable pattern in both data sets and among the ethnic groups with groups O and AB having the highest and lowest frequencies respectively. Rhesus trait and the Sickle cell traits were abundant in the population. Therefore urgent need for vaccine against erythroblastosis fetalis and premarital genetic counseling are recommended.
Keywords: Sickle Cell, Trait of Patients, Abo/Rhesus Blood Groups, & Routine Hematological Examination